micro:bit Bluetooth Profile
The micro:bit can be interacted with in an open way using the standard Bluetooth Low Energy protocol. This page outlines the details of the micro:bit protocol
The micro:bit supports Bluetooth via a single profile. This profile allows it to communicate with smart phones and tablets. Technically, the micro:bit supports one profile only, the BBC micro:bit profile, which was custom developed for the device.
If you are looking for information about the ‘radio’ feature, then that is not Bluetooth, it is a proprietary protocol from Nordic called Gazell, which you can find out more about in the links below.
BBC micro:bit Bluetooth Profile
The BBC micro:bit Bluetooth profile is defined here
The micro:bit has a Bluetooth 4.1 stack with Bluetooth low energy. It supports the GAP Perhipheral Role
As per all all Bluetooth, it operates in the ISM (Industrial Scientific Medical) band and this starts at 2.4GHz and ends at 2.41GHz. Bluetooth low energy divides the frequency band into 50 x 2MHz bands of which 40 are used. These are called “channels” and numbered 0 to 39. Channels 37, 38 and 39 are used for “advertising”.
When devices are connected, they use the other channels in a particular sequence controlled by a feature called “adaptive frequency hopping”. This helps reduce the impact of congestion from other radio users.
Data transfer rates will only be a few 100K per second at best and it very much depends on how your application uses the Bluetooth features; lots of teeny temperature containing packets would have a lower data transfer rate than using the UART service, as it depends on the proportion of system protocol information vs application data.
There are some useful advanced configuration options in the micro:bit runtime code, documented here
It would be possible for anyone with the appropriate knowledge to define and implement other Bluetooth profiles. You would need to use the mbed C/C++ environment to do this.
Original micro:bit “Out of the Box” hex file, including all the attributes in the Bluetooth Profile
Full profile with the display unused. If you want to write to the display over bluetooth then you should use this file instead of the ‘Out of the Box’ hex, which uses the display.